In the 20th century, astrology gained broader consumer popularity through the influence of regular mass media products, such as newspaper horoscopes. Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for human meaning in the sky; it seeks to understand general and specific human behavior through the influence of planets and other celestial objects. It has been argued that astrology began as a study as soon as human beings made conscious attempts to measure, record, and predict seasonal changes by reference to astronomical cycles.
There is scattered evidence to suggest that the oldest known astrological references are copies of texts made during this period, particularly in Mesopotamia Sumer , Akkad , Assyria and Babylonia. This describes how the gods revealed to him in a dream the constellations that would be most favourable for the planned construction of a temple.
The oldest undisputed evidence of the use of astrology as an integrated system of knowledge is therefore attributed to the records that emerge from the first dynasty of Mesopotamia BC. Babylonian astrology was the first organized system of astrology, arising in the 2nd millennium BC. By the 16th century BC the extensive employment of omen-based astrology can be evidenced in the compilation of a comprehensive reference work known as Enuma Anu Enlil.
Its contents consisted of 70 cuneiform tablets comprising 7, celestial omens. Texts from this time also refer to an oral tradition - the origin and content of which can only be speculated upon. Astrological symbols likely represented seasonal tasks, and were used as a yearly almanac of listed activities to remind a community to do things appropriate to the season or weather such as symbols representing times for harvesting, gathering shell-fish, fishing by net or line, sowing crops, collecting or managing water reserves, hunting, and seasonal tasks critical in ensuring the survival of children and young animals for the larger group.
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By the 4th century, their mathematical methods had progressed enough to calculate future planetary positions with reasonable accuracy, at which point extensive ephemerides began to appear. Babylonian astrology developed within the context of divination. A collection of 32 tablets with inscribed liver models, dating from about BC, are the oldest known detailed texts of Babylonian divination, and these demonstrate the same interpretational format as that employed in celestial omen analysis. The gods were also believed to present themselves in the celestial images of the planets or stars with whom they were associated.
Evil celestial omens attached to any particular planet were therefore seen as indications of dissatisfaction or disturbance of the god that planet represented. An astronomical report to the king Esarhaddon concerning a lunar eclipse of January BC shows how the ritualistic use of substitute kings, or substitute events, combined an unquestioning belief in magic and omens with a purely mechanical view that the astrological event must have some kind of correlate within the natural world:. In the beginning of the year a flood will come and break the dikes.
When the Moon has made the eclipse, the king, my lord, should write to me. As a substitute for the king, I will cut through a dike, here in Babylonia, in the middle of the night. No one will know about it. In BC Egypt was conquered by the Persians so there is likely to have been some Mesopotamian influence on Egyptian astrology.
My Chinese Zodiac Animal
The city of Alexandria was founded by Alexander after the conquest and during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the scholars of Alexandria were prolific writers. It was in Ptolemaic Alexandria that Babylonian astrology was mixed with the Egyptian tradition of Decanic astrology to create Horoscopic astrology. This contained the Babylonian zodiac with its system of planetary exaltations , the triplicities of the signs and the importance of eclipses.
Along with this it incorporated the Egyptian concept of dividing the zodiac into thirty-six decans of ten degrees each, with an emphasis on the rising decan, the Greek system of planetary Gods, sign rulership and four elements. The decans were a system of time measurement according to the constellations. They were led by the constellation Sothis or Sirius. The rising of a constellation just before sunrise its heliacal rising was considered the last hour of the night. Over the course of the year, each constellation rose just before sunrise for ten days.
When they became part of the astrology of the Hellenistic Age, each decan was associated with ten degrees of the zodiac. Texts from the 2nd century BC list predictions relating to the positions of planets in zodiac signs at the time of the rising of certain decans, particularly Sothis. Particularly important in the development of horoscopic astrology was the astrologer and astronomer Ptolemy , who lived in Alexandria in Egypt. Ptolemy's work the Tetrabiblos laid the basis of the Western astrological tradition, and as a source of later reference is said to have "enjoyed almost the authority of a Bible among the astrological writers of a thousand years or more".
According to Firmicus Maternus 4th century , the system of horoscopic astrology was given early on to an Egyptian pharaoh named Nechepso and his priest Petosiris. This is principally shown by their sacred ceremonial. For first advances the Singer, bearing some one of the symbols of music.
For they say that he must learn two of the books of Hermes, the one of which contains the hymns of the gods, the second the regulations for the king's life. And after the Singer advances the Astrologer, with a horologe in his hand, and a palm, the symbols of astrology. He must have the astrological books of Hermes, which are four in number, always in his mouth. Greek overtook cuneiform script as the international language of intellectual communication and part of this process was the transmission of astrology from cuneiform to Greek.
With this, what historican Nicholas Campion calls, "the innovative energy" in astrology moved west to the Hellenistic world of Greece and Egypt. By the 1st century BC two varieties of astrology were in existence, one that required the reading of horoscopes in order to establish precise details about the past, present and future; the other being theurgic literally meaning 'god-work' , which emphasised the soul's ascent to the stars. While they were not mutually exclusive, the former sought information about the life, while the latter was concerned with personal transformation, where astrology served as a form of dialogue with the Divine.
As with much else, Greek influence played a crucial role in the transmission of astrological theory to Rome. The first definite reference to astrology comes from the work of the orator Cato , who in BC composed a treatise warning farm overseers against consulting with Chaldeans.
One of the first astrologers to bring Hermetic astrology to Rome was Thrasyllus , who, in the first century CE, acted as the astrologer for the emperor Tiberius. While doing so, he coined the term "geography". Even though some use of astrology by the emperors appears to have happened, there was also a prohibition on astrology to a certain extent as well.
In the 1st century CE, Publius Rufus Anteius was accused of the crime of funding the banished astrologer Pammenes, and requesting his own horoscope and that of then emperor Nero. For this crime, Nero forced Anteius to commit suicide. At this time, astrology was likely to result in charges of magic and treason. Astrology was taken up enthusiastically by Islamic scholars following the collapse of Alexandria to the Arabs in the 7th century, and the founding of the Abbasid empire in the 8th century. Zael , whose texts were directly influential upon later European astrologers such as Guido Bonatti in the 13th century, and William Lilly in the 17th century.
Amongst the important names of Arabic astrologers, one of the most influential was Albumasur , whose work Introductorium in Astronomiam later became a popular treatise in medieval Europe. The Arabs greatly increased the knowledge of astronomy, and many of the star names that are commonly known today, such as Aldebaran , Altair , Betelgeuse , Rigel and Vega retain the legacy of their language. They also developed the list of Hellenistic lots to the extent that they became historically known as Arabic parts , for which reason it is often wrongly claimed that the Arabic astrologers invented their use, whereas they are clearly known to have been an important feature of Hellenistic astrology.
During the advance of Islamic science some of the practices of astrology were refuted on theological grounds by astronomers such as Al-Farabi Alpharabius , Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen and Avicenna. Tell students that because they are all close in age, their class will only have two, possibly three, zodiac animals represented. Call on a volunteer to share their zodiac animal. Turn to the page in the Chinese Zodiac Animals book that has their zodiac animal and read the characteristics aloud. Ask a volunteer to think of a time when they demonstrated one of these characteristics.
Call the volunteer to the board to write, using their invented spelling, an example of a time when they demonstrated a characteristic like their zodiac animal e. I was brave like the dragon when I rode my bike without training wheels. Independent working time 20 minutes.
Distribute a Chinese Zodiac Animal book to each student along with writing paper or writing journals.
Ask students to find their zodiac animal, read their characteristics, and think of a time when they demonstrated one of these characteristics. Remind students to use their invented spelling and to draw a picture that matches their writing.
Download to read more. Support: Work closely with students needing extra support to help them find and read their zodiac animal characteristics and, if necessary, help them understand what the characteristics mean. Provide students with a sentence frame to help them with the writing process. Enrichment: Ask students to provide more details in their writing. For example, add information such as where they were, who they were with, and how it made them feel. Ask students to look at the other characteristics describing their zodiac animal and to think of a time when they either demonstrated, or failed to demonstrate, one of those characteristics.
For example, "I was not brave like the dragon when I was too scared to go down the waterslide. Assessment 10 minutes. Ask students to bring their writing to the rug and to sit in a circle. Tell students they are each going to read their writing aloud and show their picture.
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Remind students how to be respectful listeners by looking at the person who is reading, not talking, and paying attention. As students are reading their writing aloud, listen to see that they included one characteristic and one example of a time when they demonstrated that characteristic.
Review and closing 5 minutes.
taylor.evolt.org/dunaf-conocer-gente-el.php Tell students that they may keep their Chinese Zodiac Animals books and take them home to share with their families. Encourage students to share what they have learned about Chinese New Year and the Chinese zodiac animals with their families. Ask students to find out the zodiac animal of each of their family members and to see if the characteristics match their personalities.
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